, a parasite of Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) monkeys, has been documented as a cause of human infections and some deaths in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium species are transmitted by the bite of an infective female mosquito. Chloroquine nursing responsibilities Sudden withdrawal of hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil sjogren& 39 The countries that are at moderate risk for malaria are Afghanistan, Benin, Burma also known as Myanmar that is resistant to chloroquine and mefloquine, Burundi, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti no drug resistance, Honduras no drug resistance, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Pakistan, Peru, Rwanda, Timor-Leste also known as East Timor, Vanuatu, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Background. Malaria remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in most low- and middle-income countries. Chloroquine is a previously cheap and effective antimalarial agent whose loss to resistance resulted in more than doubling of malaria-related mortality in malaria-endemic countries. THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPACT OF CHLOROQUINE RESISTANCE IN AFRICA JEAN-FRANC¸OIS TRAPE Laboratoire de Paludologie, Institut de Recherche pour le De´veloppement IRD, formerly ORSTOM, Dakar, Senegal Abstract. Between 19 Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine has been reported in all countries of tropical Africa. Malaria is a major international public health problem; 91 countries reported an estimated 216 million infections and 445,000 deaths in 2016, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report 2017. Occasionally, transmission occurs by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, needle sharing, nosocomially, or from mother to fetus. Chloroquine resistance countries Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa key lessons for the., Prevalence of chloroquine resistance alleles among. Colchine as a trail vs plaquenil Uses. Chloroquine is used to prevent or treat malaria caused by mosquito bites in countries where malaria is common. Malaria parasites can enter the body through these mosquito bites, and then. Chloroquine Oral Uses, Side Effects, Interactions.. The public health impact of chloroquine resistance in Africa. PROTOCOL Open Access Prevalence of chloroquine resistance.. Chloroquine resistance was first identified in East Africa in the late 1970s 3, 46, and countries in this region were the first to change their first line treatments from CQ to other antimalarial drugs. South Africa was the first country to recommend artemisinin-based combination therapies ACTs. Chloroquine is the drug of choice for travel to areas where chloroquine resistance has not been described. Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms Fig. 6.3 of sensitive strains of all species of malaria, and it is also gametocidal against P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. Except for its bitter taste, chloroquine is usually well tolerated and has a low incidence of serious. The geographical extent of chloroquine-resistant P vivax suggests that chloroquine resistance has emerged or spread in many P vivax-endemic countries figure 3. These individual reports warrant closer scrutiny of the raw data, review of quality-control procedures, and repetition, preferably in randomised control trials with alternative.